What Countries Is Ziki Found In

When you are faced with a sickness that could affect the entire world, you should know where the sickness is concentrated. This is vital in preventing that certain disease from infecting you or your loved ones. Travel is necessary for many people. That is why they should keep an eye out for the places infected. One disease, about which everyone should be warned, is the Zika virus. Its symptoms may not be fatal, but it is detrimental to fetal development, is the infected woman happens to be pregnant.

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What is the CDC Doing?

Last January 22, 2016, the Incident Management System was activated by the CDC. The CDC also worked through the EOC (emergency Operations Center) and centralized their response to the Zika outbreaks in the Americas during this time. They have done these as reports of Guillain-Barre syndrome and birth defects increased in Zika affected areas. The WHO declared a PHEIC (Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016 because of neurological disorders and microcephaly cases in a number of Zika affected areas. Then, on February 8, 2016, the CDC elevated its efforts to Level 1 activation, which is its highest level of response.

As of now, CDC is working with local and state health departments and international public health partner to perform the following:

  • Give travel-related guidance, including travel notices
  • Alert the public and the healthcare providers about Zika virus.
  • Report and monitor Zika cases, which will help people, understand where and how Zika is spreading.
  • Supply state health laboratories which provide diagnostic tests.

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Places with Active Zika Virus Infection

  • Pacific islands, Africa, Southeast Asia (Before 2015)
  • Brazil (May 2015 –PAHO [Pan American Health Organization issued an extensive alert which confirmed Zika infections)
  • Other territories and countries (current outbreaks)

*** Take note that the Zika virus is difficult to know where and how the virus is spreading overtime, so it will continue to spread.

 

Zika and the US Territories

As of now, local Zika transmission has been reported in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands.

No local Zika cases have been reported in the US just yet. Lab tests continue to confirm that travelers who are returning to the United States are usually infected. They could have acquired the infection from sex with an infected male traveler or from mosquito bites.

 

  • With the recent outbreaks, the number of Zika cases among travelers visiting or returning to the United States will likely increase.
  • These imported cases could result in local spread of the virus in some areas of the United States.

 

 

Countries Infected By Zika

The CDC named the following countries infected by Zika:

In the Americas:

  • Argentina
  • Bonaire
  • Anguilla
  • Barbados
  • Belize
  • Bolivia
  • Aruba
  • Cuba
  • Brazil
  • Colombia
  • Dominica
  • Curacao
  • Commonwealth of
    Puerto Rico, US territory
  • Costa Rica
  • Guadeloupe
  • Ecuador
  • Dominican Republic
  • French Guiana
  • El Salvador
  • Haiti
  • Grenada
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Honduras
  • Peru
  • Paraguay
  • S. Virgin Islands
  • Saint Lucia
  • Venezuela
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Eustatius
  • Saint Maarten
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Suriname

In the Pacific Islands/Oceana

  • American Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Fiji
  • Marshall Islands
  • Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Samoa
  • New Caledonia

In Africa:  Cape Verde

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Current Transmission of the Zika Virus

The current information about Zika is now useful to evaluate the risk of the travelers who are planning to go to or have returned from countries with active Zika infection. Certain territories and countries that experience currently have active Zika cases have been reported by the recognized health authorities within only the last few months.

The information about the countries affected change based on the reported transmissions of Zika. If the country or territory does not have any evidence of Zika transmission within nine months, the country or territory is removed from the list. The initial declaration of Zika transmission is based on a lab confirmed case made by a trusted health authority. Sub-national information is presented for countries in inertropical zones.

On week seventeen in 2016, the ECDC extended the time allotted for classifying a territory or country’s active local Zika transmission from two months to three months. This dramatic change is based on the established fact that outbreaks of Zika only last for over two months.

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As of July 15, 2016, these are the following categories:

1.Sporadic transmission. Local Zika transmission does not exceed 10 cases.

2.Widespread or increasing transmission.

  • At least 10 local Zika cases are identified in one area
  • Zika transmission goes on for at least three months
  • At least two different areas report of local Zika transmissions

3.Past transmission. Local Zika transmission known since 2007, not in the past few months.

 

Below are the countries and territories that have been reported with Zika transmission in the last three months:

Widespread transmissions:

  • American Samoa
  • Argentina
  • Belize
  • Aruba
  • Barbados
  • Brazil
  • Bolivia
  • Bonaire
  • Costa Rica
  • Cape Verde
  • Colombia
  • Curacao
  • Ecuador
  • Dominican Republic
  • El Salvador
  • Ecuador
  • Guadeloupe
  • French Guiana
  • Fiji
  • Guatemala
  • Grenada
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Honduras
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Indonesia
  • Micronesia (Federal States of)
  • Mexico
  • Martinique
  • Philippines
  • Nicaragua
  • Peru
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Saint Martin
  • Puerto Rico
  • Saint Lucia
  • Samoa
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Saint Barthelemy
  • Saint Maarten
  • Suriname
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Thailand
  • US Virgin Islands
  • Tonga
  • Venezuela

 

Sporadic Transmission:

  • Anguilla
  • Saint Eustatius

 

The countries above were classified according to the following:

  • Number of countries who report a country’s transmission status or a certain Zika transmission
  • The number of discovered autochthonous cases that are confirmed
  • Period of circulation

What You Should Know About Zika

These are information disseminated by the WHO about Zika:

  • Aedes species of mosquitoes transmit the Zika virus disease
  • Zika is a cause of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly. Its links to other neurological conditions are being investigated as well.
  • People infected by the Zika virus can have skin rashes, joint pain, muscle pain, mild fever, headache, and malaise. The said symptoms usually last for two to seven days.

The key in preventing Zika virus infection is simply protecting yourself and your loved ones from mosquito bites. You can do this by performing the following:

  • Using window screens, or closing windows and doors
  • Using repellents that contain picaridin, DEET, and IR3535
  • Wearing light colored clothes that cover majority of the body
  • Cover areas that are potential mosquito breeding grounds

The sexual transmission of the Zika virus has always been documented in a number of countries. Safe sex should be practiced so that the risk of pregnancy complications and sexual transmission of the Zika virus can be prevented. It is best to just abstain from sexual activities all throughout your pregnancy, especially if you are in a country affected by Zika or if your partner is infected.

Those who live in areas with Zika virus should either abstain from sexual activities or practice safe sex by using condoms. The travelers who have returned from countries with Zika should abstain from sex or practice safe sex for at least eight weeks after they came back. They should do this if they do not have any symptoms.

For male patients with Zika symptoms, it is best to abstain from sex for at least half a year. Those who plan to be pregnant should wait at least eight weeks before trying to become pregnant if there are no symptoms. You should wait six months of both parents have or one of the parents has symptoms.

Response of the WHO

These are the steps that should be taken to control the Zika virus, as given in the Zika Strategic Response Framework:

  • Improve the monitoring of Zika and its complications.
  • Prioritize and define research about the Zika disease by convening with partners and experts.
  • Enhance the laboratory capacities in detecting viruses
  • Engage different communities in understanding the risks connected to the Zika virus.
  • Support the accredited health authorities in implementing strategies in reducing Aedes
  • Prepare follow ups and checkups of people with Zika complications while collaborating with health agencies and experts.

Zika Transmissions

Countries with Zika infections brought about by intrauterine or sexual transmission are not included because they are not mosquito-borne.

You should take note that Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the Zika virus do not live at heights of more than 2,000 meters. If the people live on high ground, then they have minimal risk of acquiring the disease.

Countries with Past Outbreaks of Zika

The first recorded Zika outbreak in the South Pacific happened on Yap Island in 2007, in the Federated States of Micronesia. The French Polynesia declared its first Zika outbreak in October 2013. The virus then spread to other islands in the Pacific.

Here are the Pacific Islands where Aedes actively transmit the virus:

  • French Polynesia
  • Fiji
  • Cook Islands
  • Papua New Guinea
  • New Caledonia
  • Micronesia
  • Vanuatu
  • Solomon Islands

 

First Female to Male Zika Transmission

The Zika virus can now be transmitted from female to male through sexual contact. It occurred in New York City, according to the CDC. Before, the sexual transmission of this virus was only believed to me from male to male or male to female.

This development gave the CDC the signal to change its Zika guidelines for pregnant women. Even if there are still no cases of woman to woman transmissions, CDC still urges female sexual partners to use barrier methods as well while they engage in any type of sex. They should do this if they have traveled or lived in an area with Zika virus infection.

According to the CDC report, the non-pregnant, twenty-year-old woman had unprotected sex with a male partner. It was vaginal sex, which happened when she returned from an actively Zika infected country. The following day, she started to have symptoms of the Zika virus. Her symptoms included tingling and numbness of toes and finger, fever, muscle pain, rashes, and fatigue. On the third day, she saw her doctor, who took urine and blood samples from her. The doctor then sent the samples to the New York City health department. Both samples were tested positive for Zika.

On the seventh day after their sexual intercourse, the male partner started to manifest typical symptoms of Zika infection—red eyes, joint pains, rashes, and fever. The male did not travel outside the US for at least a year.

Two days after the symptoms appeared, the twenty-year-old man also saw the same doctor. Urine and blood samples were taken to the New York City Health Department. The urine was positive for Zika, while the blood serum sample was negative.

The young man also added that he only engaged in that particular sexual intercourse with his partner, within the given period. He had no recent partners or mosquito bites before he had his symptoms.

There is also mounting evidence and proof that the Zika virus is hiding in the vaginal fluid of an infected female. A twenty-seven-year-old woman from Guadeloupe fell sick. When her blood and urine were tested 11 days after her symptoms appeared, the Zika virus was gone. But the virus was still alive in her vaginal mucus.

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It is always advised for you to prevent mosquito bites whether it is Zika or another mosquito-borne disease.  Always remember to make sure that you travel prepared, especially if you need to travel into a Zika affected territory or country. Sexual intercourse could be in your menu when you travel, so might as well practice protected sex.  It is always better to be careful than to suffer the consequences.

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